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20

Jun

It is not commonly appreciated that the first target of slavery in West Africa were the Moors (the Portuguese and the Spanish referred to all Muslims regardless of racial differences as Moors). A description of the first raids has come down to us through the writings of the Portuguese writer Azurara. In 1441, a certain young Portuguese captain Golcalves sailed along the coast of southern Morocco and Mauritania gathering ivory, animal hide and sea lion oil for sale in Lisbon. In a chance encounter, he met up with a Muslim couple, wounded the man with a javelin and took them both aboard ship as slaves. At that time the jurisdiction over the Portuguese colony of Tangier was with Prince Henry, an enthusiastic supporter of a naval thrust along the Atlantic seacoast to outflank the Maghrib. The couple was presented to Henry. Sensing an opportunity to capture more slaves, he authorized an ambitious raid the same year under a seasoned and experienced captain Tristao who was familiar with the Atlantic coast of West Africa.


Captains Golcalves and Tristao netted more than a dozen Muslims and enslaved them. Elated, Henry wrote to Pope Eugene IV who gave a decree that capturing the Moors as slaves was a part of the Crusade and whoever sailed south in this pursuit would receive ablution of his sins (1442). This was the origin of the slave trade, which began with Portuguese piracy on the Moroccan coast in 1441. The process was systematized in 1444 when the Portuguese Lagos Company was chartered under the patronage of Prince Henry.

An extract from Prof. Dr. Nazeer Ahmed, PhD on the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade and how it relates to Muslim people and Muslim history in Africa.

ETA: The Portuguese explorer named in this post is Antão Gonçalves, the first recorded European to buy and bring enslaved Africans to Europe.

More African history.

(via dynamicafrica)
soundlyawake:

chescaleigh:

Janet Mock for Refinery29’s "Real People Changing What Beautiful Means"

I mean, I could be wrong, but I feel like I have an issue with this title. Janet Mock is beautiful, period. Saying “changing what beautiful means” is like saying “this should be ugly but it’s not.”

soundlyawake:

chescaleigh:

Janet Mock for Refinery29’s "Real People Changing What Beautiful Means"

I mean, I could be wrong, but I feel like I have an issue with this title. Janet Mock is beautiful, period. Saying “changing what beautiful means” is like saying “this should be ugly but it’s not.”

(Source: rydeforyou)

African labor was ideally suited for this task. A two-way exchange of sugar for labor began. As demand for sugar increased, so did the demand for African slave labor. The first shipload of sugar from Cuba arrived in Spain in 1515. In 1518, the first shipload of slaves arrived in Cuba from West Africa.


Sugar processing yields molasses as a by-product. Fermented molasses yield rum. Molasses were processed into rum in the factories that sprang up in New England, as well as in England, Holland and France. Much of the rum was consumed in Europe. From there, some of it found its way to West Africa. European merchants paid for the slaves with rum, guns, horses, and industrial products from southern Spain, and fine muslin cloth imported from India. Guns were in demand by the African slave agents who used them to hunt for more slaves. Both guns and rum were destabilizing factors in West Africa. It was a recipe for men to get drunk and kill each other. There were enormous profits to be made at each stage of the sugar-molasses-rum-gun-slave transaction. In the process, Europe and America grew rich as Africa bled in agony.

Prof. Dr. Nazeer Ahmed, PhD on the crucial role that sugar played both in the destruction of West African societies and the wealth of Europe and America, through the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade.

More African history.

(via dynamicafrica)
lecoil:

Lupita Nyong’o on the cover of Vogue, July 2014. SHUT IT DOWN!(via Black Girls Talking & Vogue)

lecoil:

Lupita Nyong’o on the cover of Vogue, July 2014. SHUT IT DOWN!

(via Black Girls Talking & Vogue)

YES! Preach!

YES! Preach!

deandalmaciophoto:

Kylie Bunbury by Dean Dalmacio.
Follow for more coming soon.

deandalmaciophoto:

Kylie Bunbury by Dean Dalmacio.

Follow for more coming soon.

vial-humanoid:

More shots of @sheisdash by Nina Duncan. Just wow #ThoseLips #WCW #OITNB #daschapolanco #OrangeIsTheNewBlack

vial-humanoid:

More shots of @sheisdash by Nina Duncan. Just wow #ThoseLips #WCW #OITNB #daschapolanco #OrangeIsTheNewBlack

Danielle Brooks attends the 4th Annual Critics’ Choice Television Awards at The Beverly Hilton Hotel on June 19, 2014

(Source: soph-okonedo)

(Source: stankonia)

(Source: gatissmark)

(Source: curlskinksandcoils)

thisisbluelanguage:

mollykatheryn:

whydontyoujustgiveitarest:

OMG please watch this First Moon ad from HelloFlo.

Please!!!!

THIS IS ONE OF THE GREATEST THINGS IN THE ENTIRE WORLD. WATCH THIS.

I would so do this to my kid

misterand:

Andy Allo | Frauke Fischer